Larmouth & Co (of Hackney), Reliance patent Codd bottle, made by Dan Rylands of Barnsely. It is embossed ‘This bottle is the property of Larmouth & Co, No deposit charged’. When the firm went bankrupt, the stock of bottles was purchased by Nicholas...
Green internal screw mineral water bottle originally made for the Cohen Brothers of Camberwell before the dissolution of their partnership at the end of 1892. The bankrupt stock of bottles was purchased by the firm of Nicholas Paul (St Pancras) and sand-blasted with...
Black glass (i.e. very dark green) cork-topped bottle, embossed ‘YABC, Gt Yarmouth’. For carbonated beverages or fruit crush manufactured by the Yarmouth Aerated Beverage Company, which was established in 1896 and went bankrupt in 1898.
Two-tone ginger beer bottle (cork-top), impressed ‘Lawrance & Sons, Yarmouth, Beccles and Saxmundham’, with a pottery stamp from George Skey of Tamworth.
Two-tone, cork-top ginger beer bottle from Morgan’s Brewery Company, Norwich (with twelve named branch stores). Probably from the Yarmouth branch.
Aqua glass bottle with a burst-off lip to take a cork. The label says ‘Hayward Bros, Old English Ketchup, For Soups, Gravies, etc’, with an address in London, S. E. Note that at this date ketchup was a cooking ingredient, though Heinz’ Tomato Ketchup...
Ceramic white lid with black under-glaze transfer, for Blanchflower’s Yarmouth Bloater Paste, showing a herring trawler.
Two bottles, one enormous, the other large. Embossed: ‘The Original Ship Brand Chutney Manufactured in Bombay’.
Small Hock wine bottle, imported from Germany.
Clear glass jam jar embossed with a shield-shaped border which contains the remnants of a label. Glass jam jars are uncommon at so early a date. The vast majority of jam and marmalade jars in the late 1890s were ceramic, and ceramic jars continued to be common for...
Various bottles from the Great Yarmouth site, including Codd bottles, Hamiltons, Ginger Beers and minerals bearing the names of local firms (Lawrence, Hunt, Newman, Neslen, Wilshak, YABC, etc). There are also a few London makers represented. The green bottle with...
White ceramic pot for potted meat, left. Ribbed ceramic jar for jam or marmalade, right.
Aqua glass smaller size tea bottle, embossed ‘Lipton’s, London & Ceylon’.
Ketchup bottles, with remnants of labels. On the left, Hayward Brothers, Old English Ketchup. On the right, a different brand, ‘Tickles’.
Green glass bottle, with remnants of label and cork, for bitters – imported from Germany or the Netherlands.
Bottles for coffee extract, including (right) Paterson’s Camp Coffee. The green bottle on the left is similar to those later used by the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society (SCWS) for bottled coffee extract, but unlike those it is not embossed. Both would...
Foster Clark & Co, Maidstone, Eiffel Tower Fruit Juices. This aqua-glass bottle with a burst-off lip contained crystals for adding to water to make fruit juice. Each bottle was supposed to make up 3 gallons. They sold for four and a half pence.
Two aqua-glass unembossed whisky/ spirits flasks. The one on the left is colloquially termed a ‘pumpkin-seed flask’, the one on the right, a ‘coffin flask’, on account of their shapes. All such vessels are flat enough to be slid into a large...
Gillard’s (larger bottle, left) and Lea & Perrin’s sauce bottles, both embossed with company name and bearing the remnants of red and white labels. Both would have had glass stoppers held in place by a cork ring.
Two brown-glass Scotch Whisky bottles, with remnants of labels in red, black and gold.
One of many oyster shells excavated in the layers of domestic waste at Great Yarmouth. It probably came from Mersea/ Colcester in Essex.
Blue ceramic with white interior half-pint pub mug, with royal cipher of Queen Victoria, confirming the capacity. Missing the handle.
W. B. Neslen, cork-stoppered stoneware ginger beer bottle, made by Pearson of Chesterfield.
Mr Stanger set up the Yarmouth Aerated Beverage Company in November 1896, and it went bankrupt in May/ June 1898. His ginger beer bottles had a dark blue top.
Lawrance of Yarmouth, Saxmundham and Beccles, stoneware ginger beer bottle, made by G. Skey of Tamworth. Such bottles were returnable. Cork stopper. In 1900, Lawrance switched to internal screw stoppers for his bottles (as advertised in the local paper for that...
D. W. Newman stoneware ginger beer bottle, Great Yarmouth. Cork top. Such bottles were returnable.
Lawrance of Great Yarmouth, 10 oz Codd bottle. Lawrance were the largest mineral water manufacturers in Yarmouth.
Small, dark green Champagne bottle – French import.
10 oz YABC Codd bottle (Yarmouth Aerated Beverage Company), Great Yarmouth. Made by Wm Barnard and Sons, London. The 6 oz Codd is known to have contained lemonade.
Heavy blob-top aqua glass mineral water bottle, embossed ‘Hunt & Son/ Great Yarmouth’, with trademark. Such bottles would have taken a cork and were returnable.
Bullet-stoppered aqua glass mineral water bottle, embossed ‘Hunt & Son/ Great Yarmouth’, with trademark on rear. Signs of wear to base indicate re-use. Such bottles were returnable and refillable.
Aqua sauce bottle, embossed ‘Holbrook & Co’. It would have had a glass stopper wedged in a cork ring.
Clear glass sauce bottle with lead alloy sealing around lip. Embossed ‘Bentley’s Imperial Relish’ on one panel, with remnants of labels on other panels.
Aqua unembossed bottle, contents identifiable from remnants of label. This says ‘Yorkshire sauce/ For Enri[ich]ing Gr[avies…]’ Other words visible lower on the label include ‘wholes[aler/s] and…’/ ‘fish sauce’/...
Aqua glass bottle embossed ‘Lea & Perrin’s/ Worcestershire Sauce’. It would have had a glass stopper wedged in a cork ring. Red-brown stains inside are remnants of the contents.
Whelk shell. In Victorian and Edwardian Yarmouth, shellfish including whelks, cockles, and oysters were sold from stands along the sea-front.
De Carle’s Ripe Fruit Drinks/ The Only Original and Genuine/ De Carle and Sons, Norwich. Green glass, burst-off lip bottle for fruit syrup/ concentrate. De Carle was a chemist in Magdalen Street, Norwich. In East Anglia in the 1890s, this was the leading brand,...
The Cohen Brothers went bankrupt in 1892 and sold off their stock in 1892-3. N. Paul purchased their bottles and sand-blasted the name ‘PAUL’ onto them. Paul’s outlet was at St Pancras, the western terminus of the GER line to Great Yarmouth. Large...
Green glass bottle with remnants of label. The following words can be made out: ‘Pink’s Pickle/ manufactory/ Long Lane/ Bermondsey’. At the top, ‘September’. E. & T. Pink are recorded at this address in the late 19th century. An...
Intact white ceramic pepper pot (or sugar or salt sprinkler), with a hole in the bottom for a cork. Of the fourteen holes, only three are open. The others are blocked, having been improperly punched. This would make the pot frustratingly difficult to use, and the...
Hand-painted tea cup, crudely decorated with under-glaze green stripes and blue bands and over-glaze red dots. There is a single blue band below the rim, inside.
A 6 oz Codd bottle, made for the mineral water manufacturer Nicholas Paul & Co, of London. It is embossed with the name of N. Paul’s firm on both sides. On one side, a blue and white oval label is stuck over the name, which identifies the contents as...
1oz brown-glass Oxo bottle, with the number 1015 embossed on the base.
Black glass English wine bottle necks, from a layer dating to the 1850s. Such bottles were meant to be returned, re-filled and re-used until broken.
Imported wine bottle necks, the one on the right retaining its lead foil (which began to be used to seal the necks/ corks of imported wine bottles c. 1840). From a layer dating to the 1850s.
Imported French champagne bottle (neck only), found in a layer from the 1850s.
Fragments of a salt-glazed stoneware porter bottle, only partly glazed inside (at the top). These bottles were returnable and re-usable.
Large, aqua glass pickle jar.
Fragment of a salt-glazed porter bottle embossed with the remains of the words ‘Wine and Spirit Merchant’, and beneath this, ‘Eye’ (in Suffolk). The name of the proprietor, which would have formed the first line of text, is missing. Bottles of...
Green glass, machine-made, internal-screw beer bottle, embossed with the name of Bidwell’s, Thetford. Found with rubbish from the 1920s at Holme Hale Hall.
Stoneware underglaze-printed ginger beer bottle from the firm Steward and Patteson Ltd of Norwich, manufactured after 1895. Price one penny.
A nineteenth-century mineral water bottle, embossed with the name of Caley’s Pharmaceutical Works, Norwich, dating before 1898 and discarded in the 1920s at Holme Hale Hall.
Victorian lids for Burgess’s Anchovy Paste (note the Victorian crown). A large number of twentieth-century lids for this product were also found, but all had broken up on account of freeze-thaw action, signifying a poorer quality of pottery. This is likely to...
Ceramic caviare pot, with printed lettering: ‘Finest Astrachan Caviare, imported by Fortnum & Mason Ltd’, etc. A Russian delicacy consumed at Holme Hale Hall, Norfolk.
Fragmentary porter bottle, found in a midden from the 1840s along with broken black glass utility bottles and oyster shells, at Brockdish rectory.
Lead-glazed, local earthenware cooking pot, with oyster shells. Found amid rubbish from the 1850s to the rear of Brockdish rectory.
Black glass necks from bottles for wine, ale or beer, found in an 1840s midden, Brockdish rectory. Such bottles were re-usable and were discarded only when broken.
Blob-top aqua mineral water bottle, embossed T.C. Frost, Mineral Water Manufacturer, Watton (dating 1870s/80s). This was about fifty years old when discarded.
Flagons and fragments of flagons, mostly unmarked or from makers in Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, discarded at Ringstead in the 1920s. By that date, flagons were gradually becoming defunct, being replaced by a variety of more hygienic containers. They turn up in dumps...
Centimetres scale: above it, oyster shells and, to the right, clinker. Above the shells, bird and animal bones, some with butchery marks. The small item, top centre/left, beneath the green and white lid for a toiletries holder, is part of a large crab claw, possibly...
A scale of centimetres, with fragments of French champagne bottles to the right of it, and the bases of black-glass English dip-moulded wine bottles to the left. Below the champagne bottles are necks from the English wine bottles. 1870s, from the rector’s...
A close-up of bottle fragments and other material from the rectory rubbish pit at Brockdish. Centre: ‘black’ glass English dip-moulded wine bottle bases. Below left: the square, tapering base of a black-glass Dutch or possibly English dip-moulded gin...
Transfer-printed pot lid for Fortnum & Mason’s caviar, from an early 1920s dump in Bradford.
Batty’s Nabob Pickle (showing a nabob, seated, consuming pickle from a bottle): ‘only genuine when secured with Bett’s capsule’ (referring to a patent closure device). Late VIctorian. Provenance uncertain (Yorkshire).
Pot lid for Keddie’s Real Gorgona Anchovy Paste, for Toasts, Biscuits, etc. From Kirton Rectory. 1900s.
Poorly manufactured ginger beer bottle for the King’s Lynn firm Ramsell & Spinks (a partnership of the 1890s). The glaze has poorly covered the printed design, so that the latter is exposed on the fired biscuit.
Early narrow-necked Codd bottle, datable to the 1870s, from the firm E. Eyre & Co of King’s Lynn. The photo shows the bottle before cleaning.
Blob-top, flat-bottomed soda water bottle, embossed ‘S. Codrington, Soda Water Manufacturer, King’s Lynn’. Found in a ditch that was filled in 1883.
Unmarked ceramic ginger beer bottles. Discarded in the 1880s.
Two-tone ginger beer bottles, unmarked.
Pot lid, printed with the words ‘Potted Ham & [Chicken], An Excellent R[elish for] Breakfast, Lun[cheon] etc’. Found amid ash and domestic waste of the 1890s.
Unmarked stoneware ginger beer bottles.
Champagne-shape stoneware ginger beer bottles used by the firm of Robert Claxton at Wells, Norfolk. During the 1920s, rather than paying for any more of his own bottles to be made, Claxton purchased a load of second-hand bottles bearing the name of the firm of...
Ginger beer bottle for the manufacturer W. Ramsell of King’s Lynn. Discarded amid 1900s ash at the ash yard – possibly missed by scavengers.
Pain & Bayles of Ipswich and Felixstowe, ginger beer bottle, with a date stamp for 1900 from Lovatt’s pottery.
Cork-top half-pint beer bottles, for the Yates Bros, Wisbech (left) and Peatling and Son of King’s Lynn and Wisbech (right). Both show wear patterns suggesting a good deal of re-use. 1900s-1910s. Discarded in the 1920s.
Impressed two-tone stoneware ginger beer bottle for the firm of Sidney Codrington of King’s Lynn. 1890s-1900s
A green glass bottle for wine or beer with a crudely rolled applied lip. Found amid hardcore that had been steamrollered as the foundations of a track-way into the ash-yard. The cork remains, 1880s or earlier.
Unmarked stoneware two-tone ginger beer bottles, possibly for the firm of Henry Hancock, who used very similar bottles stamped with his name.
Blue-lipped stoneware ginger beer bottles for the firm of H. Parker of King’s Lynn, one with blue print, one with black print.
The War Time Butter Dish: The message reads: ‘Special Message From The Rt Hon D. Lloyd George, Prime Minister: “I have no hesitation in saying that economy in the consumption of food in this country is a matter of the greatest possible importance to the...
Lamont’s Patent mineral water bottle, embossed with a hand holding a bottle, and the name of the firm Forster G, Moore, New Conduit Street, King’s Lynn. Around the base, embossed ‘Lumb & Co, Makers, Castleford’. The stopper, a wooden bullet...
Stoneware ginger beer bottles. Left, a two-tone bottle impressed H. Hancock, Ginger Beer Manufacturer, King’s Lynn (unusually around the body of the bottle). Right, a white stoneware bottle impressed John Devonshire, Mineral Water Works, King’s Lynn...
Stoneware ginger beer bottle for the manufacturer Robert Cullen of Hunstanton, who went bankrupt in 1902. The bottle was discarded in the 1920s.
Green glass bottle (base only), embossed on the base ‘Hunyadi Janos, Saxlehners Bitterquelle’, for mineral water. This was imported, probably to nearby Felixstowe, and consumed at Kirton Rectory in the 1900s.
Glass ‘coffin’ flask for whisky or other spirits, bearing the name of A. Hodge, Grimsby (with address for return). 1890s
Stoneware ginger beer bottle, impressed “Norwood Brewery Co”, with the stamp ’14 Doulton, Lambeth’. Found amid London rubbish dumped on the Essex marshes.
Plain brown cream pot, brown glaze on the outside, yellowish-cream glaze on the inside, no stamp.
Cup printed with the name of Lockhart’s Cocoa Rooms (in London). Printed on the bottom ‘Real Ironstone China, Dunn Bennett & Co, Burslem’. Found amid London rubbish dumped on the Essex marshes.
Unmarked stoneware ginger beer bottles with a green-grey glaze.
A mould-blown pontilled clear-glass decanter bottle, decorated with gold leaf and missing its stopper. Dating from the early nineteenth century, it was discarded in the 1920s.
Impressed stoneware ginger beer bottles for the firms of F. G. Moore (left) and Elijah Eyre & Co (right) of King’s Lynn. Discarded before 1883.
Jars for Keiller’s Dundee Marmalade and John Moir’s Red Currant Jam. Found amid unscavenged domestic waste, 1890s.
Base of a cylindrical cream pot from an unidentified dairy in Hastings. Above ‘Hastings’ is the word ‘Ro???’ Can anyone identify the dairy? Found amid ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s at the King’s Lynn ash yard, this had travelled...
Black and white pot lid, printed with the words ‘Real Gorgona Anchovy Paste, so highly approved of for toast, sandwiches, etc’. It bears a coat of arms very similar to that borne by Burgess’s anchovy paste lids but is otherwise generic in that it has...
Ceramic pedestal eggcup with sky-blue band above gold and silver horizontal stripes, From ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Steward and Patteson of Norwich ginger beer bottle, price one penny. If the customer wished to take the bottle away to drink the contents a farthing extra was charged as a returnable deposit.
Mocha ware half-pint pub mug, stamped with the royal cipher. Discarded with rubbish in a ditch filled in 1883.
Codd bottles and other mineral water bottles, found in a dump of domestic waste in a trench at the King’s Lynn ash yard.
Clear glass jar, embossed ‘Yallop & Co Ltd, Yarmouth’, for bloater paste. Discarded after the death of Mary Everett in 1908. The use of glass jars for meat and fish pastes gradually became the norm from the 1910s onward.
Large Keiller’s Dundee Marmalade jar made by Maling of Newcastle. The jar was already old, worn and much re-used before it was finally re-used for oil paint and discarded. Remnants of the paint remain inside. Discarded in 1908 after the death of Mary...
Aqua Hamilton bottle, embossed ‘Talbot & Co/ Ipswich/ Trade Mark T & Co/ Registered’. These bottles had already gone out of fashion by 1908, when this one was dumped along with other old and/or worn objects. It would have contained soda water or...
Thirteen Bovril bottles, discarded after the death of Mary Everett in 1908. Each is embossed either ‘2oz’ or ‘4oz’ and ‘Bovril, Limited’. Early Bovril bottles from the 1890s bear the Registration number and Farringdon Street address...
Most of a white ceramic pie dish, heavily crazed through use and exposure to heat. Only two pieces were found, but the rest may be still buried in the dump. This was one of a number of pieces of old and worn crockery that were discarded, probably intact, after the...
Teapot, with hunting scenes (man and dogs) in white sprig relief set against green enamel. A small rivet hole shows that the item had been repaired at some time before it was discarded. Victorian. Dumped with generally old and worn crockery after the death of Mary...
Bottles embossed with the name of ‘Foster Clark & Co, Maidstone’, for ‘Eiffel Tower Fruit Juices’. In 1910, Foster Clark’s became a limited company. Bottles made after this date have ‘Foster Clark Ltd’ rather than...
Clear glass, wide mouthed bottle, use unknown – possibly for fish paste? (Another, different in shape but similar in proportions, is embossed ‘Yallop & Co, Yarmouth’ – the makers of bloater paste.) Four of these unidentified bottles were...
Aqua sauce bottle with tooled lip, no embossing on body, with L/ 1029 embossed on the base; 19.6 cm high.
These jars were discarded after the death of Mary Everett in 1908. The 2 ounce Bovril bottle is for size comparison. Left, a chutney or pickle jar in aqua glass, 20 cm tall, 6.7 cm wide at the shoulder, with the base separately moulded and the numeral 1337 embossed on...
Half gallon (2 quart) flagon, in the bottom of the trench. The handle is missing, and the flagon is cracked but usable. These flagons were kept for home-made wine, beer and cider.
Stoneware half gallon (2 quart) flagon, incised ‘R. Miller & Son, Ipswich’, made by Doulton of Lambeth before 1898. Discarded in a clear-out following the death of Mary Everett in 1908. These were filled with cider or beer and taken into the fields by...
The tin with a perforated top contained scouring powder for scrubbing doorsteps, polishing cutlery or the like. The other tin is missing its lid. The pocket hip flask was for spirits.
Four heavy ceramic pots with screw-on lids, transfer-printed in black, ‘Blanchflower & Sons, Home Made (etc)’ with gap for label specifying product. For bloater paste or potted meat.
Dark olive-green glass Dutch gin bottle (typical design). These were packed into cases and imported. Excavated amid rubbish from the 1880s at Great Wakering. Discarded in London, dumped in Essex.
Small ceramic jam or marmalade pot, with ribbing, made by Maling of Newcastle. It is still partly covered with barnacles and mud. Discarded in London and dumped on the Essex marshes.
A half-ounce Bovril in yellow-amber glass, and a one-ounce bottle in the standard brown glass, both bearing the registration number found on early Bovrils. Discarded in London and dumped in Essex.
Stoneware ginger beer bottles for J. Wright of Burnham-on-Crouch, W. Ingram of Southend-on-Sea and R. White of London. All designed to hold corks.
Early-Mid Victorian aerated waters bottle with an address at Artillery Row, Westminster. The cork on this bottle would have been at risk of drying out, causing the contents to go flat. The circular scar left by the removal of the glassblower’s pontil rod remains...
Mid-Victorian Hamilton bottle for Schweppes Aerated Waters, with addresses in London, including Oxford Street. The smaller bottle on the right is embossed ‘W. Ingram/ Southend’. Both found in Leigh-on-Sea.
Hamilton bottle, embossed ‘W. Ingram/ Southend’, found during road works outside The Peter Boat pub, Leigh-on-Sea. These were used for mineral water or soda water. The design ensured that the bottles would be stored on their side, keeping the cork in...
Two bottles for Foster Clark of Maidstone, who produced powdered lemonade and fruit juice concentrate. One bottle at four and a half pence, according to the advert, could make up to 3 gallons. The bottle on the left dates no earlier than 1910, when the firm became a...
Heavy stoneware jar/ bottle for jam or preserves, or possibly for paint or polish.
Codd bottles for lemonade or other fizzy drinks, embossed J. F. Harrington, Southend-on-Sea, around trademark.
Codds for W. Ingram of Southend and R. White’s of London, who made lemonade etc. The larger one on the left has lugs to catch the marble when pouring on both the left and the right, so that the pourer did not have to turn it the right way round to prevent the...
Codd bottles for lemonade or mineral water, embossed ‘Hammond, Southend-on-Sea’, around a trademark. The one on the right has lugs to catch the marble when pouring on both the left and the right, so that the pourer did not have to turn it the right way...
Codd bottles embossed ‘W. G. Osborne & Son, Pall Mall, Leigh-on-Sea’. They contained lemonade or mineral water and retain the rubbing ring in the neck which held the marble when the bottle was full, forming an airtight seal.
Three heavy aqua glass lemonade bottles, with necks for internal-screw stoppers. Left: ‘Green & Ledicott Ltd, Southend-on-Sea’, handmade, vulcanite stopper. Centre: ‘Green & Ledicott Ltd, Southend-on-Sea’, machine-made, stopper missing....
Stoneware ginger beer bottle, incised ‘Harrington, Southend-on-Sea’ (for J. F. Harrington), with vulcanite internal-screw stopper.
Heavy aqua fizzy drinks bottle embossed ‘Lawrence, Beccles’. The neck took an internal-screw stopper. Found out on the marshes at Burnham-on-Crouch. Manufacture date is approximate.
Stoneware ginger beer for R. White’s of London, who made lemonade and ginger beer. This one has been in a destructor. It took a cork, which could be tied on.
Plain white hollow ceramic column for supporting one tier of a wedding cake (along with two or three others).
Aqua glass handmade fizzy drinks bottle with wooden internal-screw stopper, embossed ‘J. F. Harrington, Southend-on-Sea’, with logo. Found with other bottles, including Anzora, a Codd bottle and ‘Ad-le-Burg’ mineral water.
Part of the lid from Samuel Clarke’s Patent Pyramid Food Warmer and Night Light. This was a lidded jug with a small metal stand, holding a night light, which heated it from below. It was used in the nursery for boiling milk (to kill bacteria), keeping food warm...
‘Cocoa rooms’ were the successor to ‘coffee palaces’, offering good, cheap refreshments; and the company Lockhart’s ran almost the Victorian equivalent to a modern chain of coffee shops, with outlets across London. Plates, cups and mugs...
Pot lid for Burgess’s Genuine Anchovy Paste, made at 107 Strand and suitable for spreading on toast and biscuits. It sold in vast quantities. The lid displays iron staining where a ferrous metal item has rusted next to it in the ground.
Part of a lid for a large pot of [BLOA]TER [PASTE], with a thistle design below, showing a word ending in T followed by the word LUNC[HEON]. Variations of this pot lid have been found for ‘POTTED BEEF’ and ‘ANCHOVY PASTE’. The contents is...
Part of a cylindrical white ceramic pot with a purple transfer. The most common sort is printed ‘Pure/ Clotted Cream/ From/ Devonshi[re]/ [D]aily’. (The ‘re’ of Devonshire and most of ‘Daily’ are visible on this fragment.) Others...
Part of a transfer-printed ginger beer bottle, for Chambers & Co. of Bermondsey. Consumed in London and discarded in Essex.
Part of a bowl, with a red transfer showing the logo of the Salvation Army (introduced in 1879), beneath the words ‘Food and Shelter’.
Ceramic jar, transfer-printed in black ‘Genuine Cumberland Rum Butter, Made by Millers, Kendal’. Made in Cumbria; consumed in Essex.
Part of a cup from ‘The Help Myself Coffee Palace Company’, which was at 216 Old Kent Road. Refreshments were served to subscribers who paid 2d a week. Discarded in East London and dumped in Essex.
Aqua sauce bottles, embossed ‘Goodall, Backhouse & Co, Yorkshire Relish’. The one on the right retains its original glass stopper.
Brown glass bottle embossed ‘Valentine’s Meat Juice’. For meat extract.
Aqua glass burst lip syrup bottle. Cork top.
Aqua glass bottle stoppers. Top and bottom centre: this type was used for chemists’ bottles and was ground to fit in the neck. The rest (except for the patent internal screw design bottom right) are from sauce bottles (Worcester sauce, Yorkshire relish etc)....
Fragments of polychrome transfer-printed pot lids, used for luxury meat and fish pastes. They mostly date to the period 1850-80 and preceded the black and white lids with company names. Found with Victorian rubbish at Leigh (left) and Hadleigh (right).
Aqua bottle/jar with external screw thread, embossed ‘Horlick’s/ Malted Milk/ Slough Bucks/ England/ and/ Racine Wis[consin] U.S.A.’ Metal screw cap missing.
Light blue bottle for ‘Mason’s Wine Essences, Nottingham’. For making home-made wine.
Black glass bottle for wine or porter. Cork top. Found in the Thames.
Dark brown glass, machine-made 1oz Bovril from the Thames. 1920s. Embossed on base ‘Bottle Made in England by F. G. C.’
Embossed ‘Bovril R[egistere]d 100848’ and ‘Bovril Limited’. Contents in ounces is not embossed on the bottle, as in later examples.
2oz machine-made Bovril. The lip has been made in a separate mould, as shown by the seam.
Early machine-made Bovril, 4oz. A number were found in this deposit, some with the neck made in a separate mould.
Aqua bottle for Foster Clark Ltd of Maidstone, Eiffel Tower Fruit Juices. No earlier than 1910, when the firm became a private company. Found in a domestic rubbish pit in Suffolk. This held powdered crystals that could be added to water to make up to 32 cups of fruit...
Small Hamilton bottle for J. F. Harrington of Southend-on-Sea. For soda water. Cork top.
Small aqua Codd for J. F. Harrington’s of Southend-on-Sea. Found in a bucket with a bottle for Sloan’s Liniment, a bottle from the Anzora perfumery and a stoneware mineral water bottle from the ‘Ad-le-Burg’ works in Westcliff-on-Sea.
Early Bovril bottle, with a sheared lip; embossed ‘Bovril, Rd 100848, 30 Farringdon St, London’. No quantity (i.e. contents in ounces) is embossed on this bottle, unlike later ones. Amber glass.
Soda/ mineral water bottle, for Caley’s of Norwich. A small-sized ‘Hamilton’ bottle, designed to be stored on its side.
Animal bones from butcher’s cuts.
Part of pictorial transfer-printed ginger beer bottle, showing a ship trademark (facing the prow). From a Yorkshire firm based in Leeds and Knaresborough. Found in the River Knidd.
Left: two stoneware bottles from the Battersea Aerated Water Company. They have been in a destructor. The glaze has run and accretions of burned cinders etc have attached to the bottles. Right: a green mineral water bottle from Chalk Farm, partly melted in a...
Part of an incised stoneware blacking bottle, marked with the manufacturer’s name and address and ‘BLACKI[NG BOTTLE]’. Blacking bottles were identified in this manner to avoid the excise duty levied on stoneware bottles in the period 1817-1834, from...
Left: small pot for Keiller’s Dundee Marmalade, from Marshbrook, discarded 1915-20. Right: sample pot for the same, from Leigh-on-Sea, also discarded 1915-20.
Generic Army & Navy Co-operative Society preserves pot, for jam, marmalade etc (as specified on the label, which varied depending on the contents).
Plain white ceramic jars for meat or fish paste, or possibly for glue.
Stoneware ginger beer bottle for H. Hepworth of Old Kent Road. Cork top. Found below the sea wall at Burnham-on-Crouch. 1880s.
Codd bottle for W. Ingram of Southend-on-Sea. Rear embossed ‘The Niagara Bottle’. For mineral water or soda. Found in the mud at low tide.
Stoneware bottle for the South London Mineral Water Co[mpany]. Cork top. 1870s.
Flat-bottomed Hamilton bottle from the Stretton Hills Mineral Water Company, of Church Stretton. Blob top for cork. These bottles superseded the egg-shaped version during the first decade of the twentieth century. They were supposed to be stored on their side, but...
Aqua/blue sauce bottle with swirls and panels. Cork top.
Large jar for James Keiller & Son’s Dundee Marmalade, black transfer on white.
Heavy two-tone stoneware caviare pot, incised: ‘Finest Unpressed Astrachan Caviare, imported by Cadbury, Pratt & Co’, with an address in Bond Street. Grooves in the lip allowed the lid to be tied or clamped on. The contents were shipped in from Russia....
Cox’s beer bottle, rear embossing: a farthing’s deposit charged on this bottle. The farthing (a quarter of a penny) would be given to the customer when the bottle was returned to the shop.
Amber beer bottle for Cox’s of Southend-on-Sea, bearing the trademark of J. F. Harrington. Internal screw stopper. A farthing deposit charged on this bottle. Found below the sea wall,
Codd bottle for Arthur Watts of Southend-on-Sea, with acorn pictorial trademark. Found below the sea wall at Leigh-on-Sea. For mineral water or soda.
Black glass beer bottle for Seabrooke and Sons of Grays and Thurrock. Cork top. Found below the sea wall at Burnham-on-Crouch.
Stoneware two-tone bottle for Brooke’s Home Brewed Ginger Beer, Hastings and Bexhill, with Vulcanite internal screw stopper.
Two-tone stoneware mineral water bottle for Ad-le-burg manufactory, Southend-on-Sea. Crown cap. Stamped ‘Bourne, Denby, 15’. This item was found in a bucket with other bottles, including a small Codd from Harrington’s, a bottle from the Anzora...
Codd bottle for J. Bacon of Burnham-on-Crouch, who established his mineral water factory in 1905. Found below the sea wall. The rubber ring which held the marble is visible in the neck.
Stoneware ginger beer bottle for Markham’s of Maldon. Found below the sea wall at Burnham-on-Crouch. Crown cap.
Hand-made beer bottle, in amber glass, for the Shrewsbury and Wem Brewery Company Ltd (established 1898). Cork top. Base worn through re-use.
Early machine-made beer bottle for the Shrewsbury and Wem Brewery Company Ltd. (Cork neck.)
Beer bottle for W. W. Humphreys of Shrewsbury. It would have taken a cork.
Bottle for wine or beer. English, 1870s. Found in the mud below the sea wall at Burnham-on-Crouch.
J. F. Harrington, Southen-on-Sea, Codd bottle for mineral water. The marble functioned as a stopper and a valve, to keep the gas from escaping.
Tucker’s Devonshire Clotted Cream pot. Blue transfer on white. 1880s. Discarded c. 1910 in labourers’ rubbish, Kent, having travelled via Devon and London.
Potted Meat pot for G. W. Plumtree of Southport, whose factory moved to 13 Railway Street in or after 1895.
Mustard barrel/ pot, possibly by Colman’s of Norwich.
Fruit juice bottles for Gill of Bristol, Foster Clark of Maidstone and De Carle’s of Norwich. The Eiffel Tower pictorial trademark can be seen on Foster Clark’s bottle (centre).
Three burst-lip fruit juice bottles: left to right: Gill & Co of Bristol, Foster Clark of Maidstone and De Carle’s of Norwich. They cost four and a half pence each and contained enough powder to make 32 glasses of fruit juice cordial.
Red-brown earthenware pot for dripping, glazed interior.
1oz Bovril Bottle.
Sauce bottle, aqua-turquoise, embossed in two indented panels, ‘Fletcher’s Tiger Sauce’, with two panels blank, one flat for label. Tooled lip.
Base of a mineral water bottle, made in a semi-automatic blow-and-blow machine, showing a suction flaw (indent) in the side. The seam through the lip is aligned at 90 degrees to the main seam running up the body.
Early machine-made bottle. A large number of these were found in the deposit.
Early machine-made bottle. A large number of these were found in this deposit.
Assorted stoneware bottles mostly for furniture cream and ginger beer, with a couple of galley pots, ink bottles and cream jars, and two bottles for German mineral waters.
Large Perrier Water Bottle made in an Owens automatic bottle machine. Crown cap missing.
Green bottle. Use uncertain.
Machine-made, aqua bottle, embossed on three panels ‘Paterson’s, Ess[ence of] “Camp Coffee” & Chicory, Glasgow’, the fourth panel blank for the label. Various sizes were found in this deposit.
Two bottles made in an Owens automatic bottle machine, showing the distinctive suction scar on the base. Left: Paterson’s Essence of Camp Coffee and Chicory. Right: Perrier Water.
Moulded glass jar for meat or fish paste, bearing the registration number 612272 (for late 1912). Two were found in this deposit. Clear glass made with manganese oxide.
Rectangular aqua bottle, with tooled lip. ‘Chivers & Sons Ltd, Histon, Cambridge’. The Cambridge Lemonade’. Transported to Castle Rising by rail. The powder made up to 2 gallons (32 glasses) of lemonade.
Pots for the products of Robert Seager of Ipswich. Left: ‘Chicken and Ham’ (red transfer). Right: ‘Fine Potted Ham’ (black transfer). Transported to Castle Rising by rail.
‘Frank Cooper’s “Oxford” Home-Made Seville Marmalade, warranted pure’. Ceramic pot.
‘Army & Navy Co-operative Society, Gorgona Anchovy Paste’, pot lid, black transfer on white. London.
Green & Ledicott Ltd, Brewed Ginger Beer, Southend on Sea. Two-tone, transfer-printed ginger beer with original Green & Ledicott internal screw stopper.
J. Sainsbury’s Superior Home Made Potted Meats.
Internal Screw Stopper, with rubber ring, embossed ‘T. Peatling & Sons, Kings Lynn’. From a beer or mineral water bottle. Vulcanite.
Bones from butchers’ cuts (pork/ lamb/ mutton/ beef). From the School House.
Oyster shells from the School House. (Only two were found in this deposit.)
Egg-shaped ‘Hamilton’ bottles for soda water, made for the firms Caley & Son and Steward, Patteson and Finch, both of Norwich. These held cork stoppers and were kept on their sides, allowing the cork to remain moist (thereby preventing shrinkage). From...
Left: Crosse and Blackwell’s Mango Chutney, with remnants of label – imported ingredients Right: dried olives, with remnants of labels on neck and body – imported ingredients
Neck, shoulders and base of a bottle for Mason’s Extract (aqua). This contained a herb extract which could be added to soda water for making herb beer. From the School House.
Neck from a ‘Hamilton’ mineral water bottle (either egg-shaped or flat-bottomed). Aqua.
Saucer with grey-blue banding decoration to the rim. From the School House.
Potted meat pots. Two fragments retain part of the transfer for Plumtree’s of Southport, one of the most widely distributed brands. At least three different pots are represented here. Pots like this were superseded by moulded glass jars in the 1910s. From the...
Pot for jam, marmalade or soup. From the School House, Bergh Apton. Some of these pots have a transfer-printed label, but there is no evidence that this one did. It would have had a paper label instead.
Neck of a bottle for sauce, relish or vinegar. Aqua, tooled lip, 1900s.
Small oval tin with lid, for spices or mustard powder (priced at one penny). It has fused to part of the firing mechanism of a shotgun. The object below is the trigger guard from the same shotgun. From Hempstead rectory.
Wine jug, showing grapes, missing a pewter lid. From Hempstead rectory.
Champagne bottle, green, c. 1900. Remnants of label on neck.
Large aqua sauce bottle, c. 1900, no embossing. Glass stopper missing.