The top of a two-piece (travelling?) shaving brush. The body is of bone, and there is an internal screw thread for the lower part (which is missing) to screw in to. The bristles have shrunk.
Turned wooden item, with grooves in the centre and rounded ends. Use unknown. Traces of copper staining at one end. The other end is damaged.
Bone handle from a knife, fork or spoon. The metal blade is missing. The side is split, which may have caused the tang to loosen and the blade to become dislodged.
Clear glass jar, with external screw thread, ground on top. Embossed on base ‘Propert’s, London’. Such jars contained boot cream or other creams and polishes. It is an early example of a jar with an external screw thread.
Left, bottle embossed down both side panels ‘Argonaut Reg.’, for hat polish. Right, bottle embossed down side panels ‘Floraline’/ ‘London’, corked with metal drizzler – a hair tonic product?
Mid-Victorian statuette of man in chair, crudely painted and made in the Staffordshire potteries – possibly a fairing. There are signs that the head (missing) had, in the past, been cemented back on.
Hollow moulded statuette of woman in what appears to be eastern European dress, holding a fan.
Torso of statue of man in Tudor dress, with robe, thick padded sleeves, chain and medallion. Traces of gilding visible on parts; parts retain under-glaze colour. Possibly a Renaissance figure such as Henry VIII.
Broken half-pint mug, impressed with the stamp of Doulton,...
Small brown stoneware bottle with remnants of green and white label. Some words are visible: ‘…BBY [CR]EAM’, and on a line below ‘Fur[ni]ture’. Below this ‘[H]ELPER’, and on the bottom line ‘ONE PENNY’.
Unembossed aqua bottle with oval panels and remnants of labels in the panels. The front label identifies the contents as ‘Hat Polish’.
Light blue glass, burst-off lip, disposable lamp. These were sold containing oil/ paraffin, with a wick through the cork.
Paintbrush, minus the handle. The bristles are held together by copper wire wrapped around the top and covered by a thin metal band. The shaped shank is of wood. There is evidence of wear to the bristles. ...
Clay pipe moulded in the shape of a wicker fishing basket with a herring swimming in through a hole at the base, where the bowl joins the stem.
Horn or early plastic hair clip?
Turned, machine-etched sherry glass, lacking the pedestal and part of the stem.
Light blue milk glass specimen vase or ornament in the shape of a monkey holding up a basket or vase. Traces of paint/ gilding remain.
Sky-blue-glass specimen vase, with a clear-glass stem. Vases of this sort were for holding a single ‘specimen’ flower. The stem and pedestal foot are broken off.
Horn or similar material, double-tubed mouthpiece for a briar pipe. The fitting end is broken off.
Two clay tobacco pipe, one embossed with buffalo horns and RAOB (Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes), the other with leaf decoration up the seam and a heart, wreathed, beneath the sun, on one side, and a hand, wreathed, beneath the sun, on the other. The first pipe...
Copper-alloy farthing – a quarter of a penny – dated 1894. Found in a layer of rubbish deposited in...
Greenish glass, square ink bottle, with four pen-rests moulded into the top, and with a burst-off lip for a tight-fitting cork held in place with wax. Bottles of ink of this size cost a penny and were widely available.
White glass globular pedestal vase or pot pourri holder, with a flat flared lip, etched with grasses and ferns around the body. Damage to the lip.
Brush for scrubbing mud off boots or for general household scrubbing. Thick stiff bristles are secured in groups by trace remains of copper wire. They are much worn down, showing why the brush was thrown...
Part of an under-glaze-printed bowl. The pattern has been created by repeat printing with a sponge, carved block of potato, or similar.
Carved jet (or jet substitute) brooch, with remains of a fitted copper brooch plate and pin on the back.
Two clay tobacco pipes, possibly made by a Yarmouth pipemaker. One is decorated with fish scales going into a wicker basket. The other depicts fish or ripples swimming into a wicker basket (less crisply moulded). Designs of this sort may relate to the Yarmouth herring...
Blue milk-glass vase, moulded with drapery or ribbons and hanging flowers or berries. The pedestal base is broken off.
Mid-Victorian salt-glazed spring-moulded hunting jug, with the mouldings depicting Toby Belcher (holding a frothing jug and glass, with pipe on the table), a second man sitting on a barrel, head in hand (with a frothing jug and pipe on table), an oak tree, a windmill,...
Buffalo clay pipe, with the acronym RAOB (Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes) and a buffalo’s face, with evidence, in the form of burn-marks, that the pipe has been smoked.
Clay pipe with the acronym RAOB (Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes) and a buffalo face embossed.
Borax pot lid (London and Birmingham) with blue advertising design, underside. Both top and bottom have the brand name on them.
Heavy ceramic pot lid for ‘Borax’ (London and Birmingham), with blue printed advertising design on both sides. Top side is shown.
Ceramic knob-bead with remains of metal fitting running through it, from the middle of a drawer or cupboard handle.
A cheap, white ceramic ornament, partly painted. A cherub is riding or sitting on a shoe, which has floral/ sea-shell moulding. It may have been a spill-holder or specimen vase or merely an ornament. The missing part of the shoe may have borne a legend commemorating...
Neck and shoulders of a porter or veterinary bottle (white slip, salt-glazed stoneware).
Fragment of a large impressed stoneware bottle – possibly a porter bottle or a veterinary bottle. The upper line of text begins with the word ‘ROYAL’. The lower line begins with an address ’86, LOW…’.
Yellowish lead-glazed local earthenware pantry vessel (2 fragments), from a layer from the 1850s.
Brown glass bottles in 2 sizes for poison or poisonous substances.
Brown glass bottles for cleaning fluids/ products, including ‘Jeyes Fluid’ and ‘Lysol’. From Holme Hale Hall.
Assorted poison bottles (i.e. bottles for poisonous substances), from Holme Hale Hall.
Red-brown glass bottle, embossed: ‘ACTIENGESELLSCHAFT/ fur ANILINEFABRIKATION/ BERLIN, S.O. This contained liquid for developing photographs.
Copper-alloy lamp fitting. probably from a standing oil lamp.
Plain ceramic candlestick, missing its base.
A copper-alloy farthing (quarter of a penny) dated 1908, showing the head of Edward VII. Found amid rubbish from the 1920s in a midden at Holme Hale Hall, Norfolk.
Lead-glazed, local earthenware cooking pot, with oyster shells. Found amid rubbish from the 1850s to the rear of Brockdish rectory.
Lead-glazed local earthenware cooking pot, found in a deposit of household waste from the 1850s at Brockdish rectory.
Hot water bottle, stamped with the name ‘HARRY TYCE/ DAVEY PLACE STEPS/ NORWICH’ – damaged.
Copper alloy curtain ring – found on its own (i.e. not with a load of others that might signify a dumped curtain)
Bottle glass, blue and white transfer-printed serving dishes, drinking glasses (fragmentary), broken ‘Hamilton’ bottles (bottom right corner), cut glass tumblers (above the ‘Hamiltons’), and a medicine bottle above them. All discarded at...
Fragment of a nineteenth-century slab-sealed flagon impressed with the name ‘B. Bowlen, Horseshoes Inn, Roydon’ (Norfolk). This was over fifty years old when it was discarded, apparently already broken, although other flagons were thrown away intact. The...
Blue and white ceramic tureen knob in the shape of a lion. Moulded by someone who had only a vague idea of what a lion looked like.
Ceramic washstand basin, with transfer-printed classical design in red/ brown, showing female classical figures, possibly the muses. Discarded (broken) at Brockdish rectory, 1870s or earlier
Broken tiles made at the Broseley factory in Shropshire. Similar but not identical to tiles used in the rectory and church, these may have been samples. One has a simple floral design. The other shows a bird, possibly an eagle.
Assorted rubbish from the rectory, discarded in the 1870s. The reddish glazed pottery fragments, centre right, are from utilitarian mixing bowls made of local earthenware (redware) and finished with a lead glaze. This sort of ware was produced until the middle years...
Left: fragments of blue and white willow-pattern plates. One piece is fused within a piece of clinker, showing that a layer of rubbish had been burned at a very high temperature (possibly as fuel to fire a furnace used for some industrial process during the...
Large and small cream stoneware ink bottles. The two on the left may have contained ticket or label ink. The large one was a master ink, made by Doulton, Lambeth (stamped bottom right). It was found to be broken but seems to have been discarded intact. The scale is in...
An assemblage of household rubbish discarded in the 1870s at Brockdish rectory. Top left (from left to right): clinker, oyster shells, small bones, green glass German mineral water bottle fragments and aqua glass English wine/ ale bottle fragments, ‘black’...
Brass mid-Victorian pins, found on a patch of black silt with mid-Victorian refuse on the south bank of the Thames foreshore, along from the Globe. They were used to pin cloth by seamstresses and were probably attached to off-cuts when discarded.
Green glass poison bottle with star embossing, found amid 1920s refuse at Ringstead. It contains remnants of a white substance. Poison bottles of this sort held any substances that were poisonous (including silver polish). During the 1910s and 1920s they were used for...
The “Adaptable” Hot Water Bottle for muff or pocket. Stoneware muff warmer by Doulton of Lambeth. The metal ring to suspend it by the neck is missing (presumably rusted away).
Turned cylindrical wooden object with a groove around the edge of the flat surface and a hole through the middle. Found amid domestic ash and waste of the 1890s.
A wooden tool handle, with a bore hole for the metal part of the tool. This handle has been attacked by woodworm and may have been replaced with a new one and discarded (hence the absence of the metal part of the tool). It survived in waterlogged ash and domestic...
Cream/ white ink bottle with a pouring lip, impressed on one side ‘Field/ London’, and on the other with a stamp of J, Bourne & Son of the Denby Potteries near Derby. The item is shown prior to cleaning.
Mug celebrating Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, 1837-97. Found amid ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Ceramic pot base for cold cream, toothpaste or similar. When found, it contained a wooden cotton reel, which appears to have been thrown away inside it. Found amid ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Flat bone disc with a hole through the centre. Is it part of the teat fitting for a baby’s feeding bottle?
Clay pipe bowls excavated from a ditch that was filled in 1883.
Hexagonal ribbed cobalt-blue glass bottle for poison or poisonous substances, embossed ‘Not to be Taken’.
World War I blue enamel army issue water bottles (also known a canteens). They came in canvas holders with a strap and a cork. Discarded after the end of the war in the early 1920s.
Miniature grey ceramic vase, missing the neck and handle.
Knob/ handle from the top of a tureen lid, in the shape of a lion (poorly cast). From ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Stoneware ink bottles for the firm Hollis & Son, of 14 Old Street London. The bottle on the left has a salt glaze, that on the right a thick brown liquid glaze.
Ceramic pot bases. The one on the left (missing lid) probably contained meat or fish paste, relish or shaving cream. The one on the right might have contained toothpaste or cold cream. Note how little it contained! This was a ploy by the seller, ensuring that the...
Jar or bottle with lead glaze over a brown slip. The handle is missing and the lip damaged. This is an early piece but how early? Discarded in the 1920s.
Two jars for keeping ginger (minus their lids) and a cut glass pedestal bowl.
The War Time Butter Dish: The message reads: ‘Special Message From The Rt Hon D. Lloyd George, Prime Minister: “I have no hesitation in saying that economy in the consumption of food in this country is a matter of the greatest possible importance to the...
Blackwood’s Patent Syphon ink bottle, with distinctive pouring lip and hole to rear of neck. Fragmentary bottles of this and the larger size were also found amid rubbish from the early 1880s.
Stoneware ink bottle for the firm Street & Day, of London.
Pearlware Staffordshire dog’s head, holding a basket of flowers in its mouth, c. 1840. Discarded before 1883.
Remains of a tile bearing the arms of King’s College, Cambridge. Found at Hempstead Rectory in Norfolk, which was a King’s living.
A transfer-printed blue and white cup, missing the handle. In the bottom is the remnants of red lead paint, which was a standard primer for coating steel. A decision had been made to use the cup for paint as its final service, possibly because the handle had already...
Small ceramic ornament in the shape of a table, with two cats peeking out from underneath. The top of the ornament, now damaged, had a row of three teacups and saucers with three tabby cats crouched over the top of them licking off the cream. Found amid ash and...
Mystery patent bottle, embossed Lawrence & Hawkins Patent, with a metal external screw-on cap with the remains of a brush in the top. Inside the bottle is what appears to be a large rubber washer, which is too large to have gone through the neck unless it was...
Mocha ware half-pint ceramic pub mugs, stamped with the royal cipher. Discarded before 1883.
Plain white ceramic religious ornament involving three women/ angels carrying a cross, an anchor and a heart, these figure representing faith, hope and charity respectively. The base is damaged. Found amid ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Wooden cotton reels. The smaller one was found inside a pot base, the two seemingly have been discarded together. They survived in waterlogged ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Base (ferrous) metal candlestick, missing its base. Found amid ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
Part of a majolica ornament, but what was it?
Many different colours of glass are brought together in this specimen vase (for a single flower), the top of which has broken off. Found amid ash and domestic refuse of the 1890s.
‘Irish’ clay pipe bowl, made of kaolin, embossed with a harp.
Hand-turned wooden dolly pegs for hanging out clothes on the washing line, found in waterlogged ash mixed with domestic waste from the 1890s. Sometimes these pegs were made by gypsies. Normally wooden items do not survive.
Stoneware ‘Adaptable Hot Water Bottle’, made at the Fulham Pottery, London. It would have had a screw-in stopper. The remains of the metal handle are visible. The hot water bottle was found with another, Doulton ‘brick’ shape hot water bottle....
Cobalt blue glass bottle embossed ‘The Electric Furniture Polish’. Found in a ditch filled in 1883.
Large Keiller’s Dundee Marmalade jar made by Maling of Newcastle. The jar was already old, worn and much re-used before it was finally re-used for oil paint and discarded. Remnants of the paint remain inside. Discarded in 1908 after the death of Mary...
Aqua glass vet’s bottle embossed ‘The only/ Genuine/ Day, Son and Hewitts/ Gaseous Fluid/ London’. This was a favourite remedy for horses, cattle and sheep. Two of these bottles were found; the other one was broken. Discarded in 1908 after the death...
Tiny white ceramic specimen vase, painted with red floral decoration, made for the Chinese export market. This was one of three oriental vases discarded after the death of Mary Everett in 1908, probably because her daughters did not share her tastes. Other crockery...
Worn dinner plate with transfer-printed decoration in light blue. Like much of the crockery in the deposit, this old unwanted plate may have been discarded intact. Dumped after the death of Mary Everett in 1908.
Teapot lid with mottled brown and white slip. Teapot lids were commonly discarded intact, if the teapot itself had broken. No doubt the coincidence of a lid from a broken teapot fitting a pot without a lid was too rare for lids to be kept for that eventuality. Dumped...
Part of a large serving dish, with transfer-printed light blue floral and scroll pattern. Discarded with old and worn crockery after the death of Mary Everett in 1908.
Most of a white ceramic pie dish, heavily crazed through use and exposure to heat. Only two pieces were found, but the rest may be still buried in the dump. This was one of a number of pieces of old and worn crockery that were discarded, probably intact, after the...
White ceramic oriental vase with blue and white painted decoration, discarded with two others after the death of Mary Everett in 1908.
Imported oriental white ceramic flower vase, with transfer-printed design in blue, showing human figures and animals. This was one of at least three small imported oriental vases discarded, in 1908, after the death of Mary Everett, along with old and worn crockery....
Teapot, with hunting scenes (man and dogs) in white sprig relief set against green enamel. A small rivet hole shows that the item had been repaired at some time before it was discarded. Victorian. Dumped with generally old and worn crockery after the death of Mary...
Stoneware ink bottles. The brown ones are 11.5 cm tall (with slight variation) and were made after 1895 by Lovatt & Lovatt, Langley Mill, Nottingham. They are not as well made as earlier ink bottles by firms such as Doulton, who trade Lovatt and Lovatt and others...
Ink bottles, in different colours, with recesses in the shoulders for pens to rest, and with burst-off lips. The two in the front row still retained some of the sealing wax, used to secure the cork, around the lip. The broken green one, front left, is embossed...
Aqua glass bottle, 12.7 cm tall, embossed on three sides: ‘Hauthaway’s/ Peerless Gloss/ Made in U.S.A’. Hauthaway’s company, established in 1852, manufactured protective coatings for shoes. The bottles come in different colours. Some have the...
‘Stephenson Brothers, Bradford/ Furniture Cream’ embossed on shoulder of this clear-glass bottle. In 1908, when this bottle was discarded, glass was beginning to supersede stoneware, although the Stephenson Brothers still sold their famous product in the...
Clear glass long-necked bottle, 11 cm tall. 3.6 cm wide, embossed ‘Super’ on base, and retaining sticky black residue. It would have contained sewing machine oil, manufactured by Singer. Dumped with much of its contents intact in 1908 after the death of...
These jars were discarded after the death of Mary Everett in 1908. The 2 ounce Bovril bottle is for size comparison. Left, a chutney or pickle jar in aqua glass, 20 cm tall, 6.7 cm wide at the shoulder, with the base separately moulded and the numeral 1337 embossed on...
More bottles and crockery from Falkenham, found on the second day of the dig. This selection was dumped in 1908. The bottles are mostly non-reusable. The crockery is mostly worn or low-grade.
Various bottles and mostly low grade crockery dumped in 1908 after the death of Mary Everett. None of the bottles from this site was made in an automatic bottle machine. Much of the crockery was old or worn, and few if any useful items had been discarded.
Half gallon (2 quart) flagon, in the bottom of the trench. The handle is missing, and the flagon is cracked but usable. These flagons were kept for home-made wine, beer and cider.
Stoneware half gallon (2 quart) flagon, incised ‘R. Miller & Son, Ipswich’, made by Doulton of Lambeth before 1898. Discarded in a clear-out following the death of Mary Everett in 1908. These were filled with cider or beer and taken into the fields by...
A milk glass oil lamp stand in the bottom of the trench, cleared out after the death of Mary Everett in 1908.
The face of a mantel clock, with Roman numerals.
The tin with a perforated top contained scouring powder for scrubbing doorsteps, polishing cutlery or the like. The other tin is missing its lid. The pocket hip flask was for spirits.
Two stoneware brown glaze quart + capacity pouring master ink bottles, stamped ‘Doulton, Lambeth’.
Transfer-printed cup, with pink, blue and gold colouring, showing the Clarkson Monument and General Post Office, Wisbech. Chipped but intact when discarded in Essex.
Tapering stonware bottles for drugs, condiments or polish. The one on the left, from Great Wakering, has been in a destructor, which has caused the glaze to melt. Iron oxide stains and other accretions are visible on the surface. The other, from Hadleigh, came from a...
Two ceramic bottles for ink or dye which have been in a destructor in London. Dumped as hardcore to build a road surface in Essex.
Mid-Victorian red-brown bottle, use unknown.
Solid glazed ceramic bell-shaped object. For use in bread making?
Octagonal aqua glass burst-off lip ink bottle, sold for a penny.
Aqua boat inks with burst-off lips. The recesses in the shoulder were for resting the pen. These came with corks sealed with sealing wax, and sold for a penny each. The one on the right is still full of river mud.
Heavy stoneware jar/ bottle for jam or preserves, or possibly for paint or polish.
Clear glass bird feeder, from a birdcage. Discarded intact.
Heavy cream-coloured stoneware bottle made by Doulton, Lambeth, for gold leaf paint. Drips of paint are preserved around the lip and on the interior.
Aqua glass sheared-lip bottle, embossed “MORDAN”. Use uncertain.
Aqua glass stoppers for wide-necked bottles and jars.
Rim-fire shotgun cartridge ends. These were dangerous because it was easy to trigger the firing mechanism by pressing the pin.
Brass moulded buttons from uniforms, and a gilt snake clasp from an officer’s belt. The buttons include regimental buttons for the 20th, 78th (depicting an elephant), and 85th (light infantry). There is also a uniform button for the London District Post...
Ally Sloper was a popular Victorian cartoon character. Here his head adorns a clay pipe, with his nose serving as the spur. The pipe has been in a destructor.
A tiny clear glass jar with a burst-off lip. It has been partly melted in a destructor.
Tiny clear glass bottles. The one on the left is embossed with a trademark and the words ‘Extra Quality’. These words are found on a variety of bottles for Singer’s sewing machine oil.
Cut glass pieces from chandeliers.
Beads mostly made of glass, milk glass and jet. Some would have been in strings or attached to clothing when discarded.
A variety of buttons made of bone, mother of pearl, milk glass, china and wood. Many would have been attached to items to clothing when thrown away.
Jet buttons, pendants, hat-pin heads, etc. Jet was especially popular during the years Victoria spent mourning for Prince Albert. Whitby was a main centre for the industry.
Hand- or machine-cut jet buttons are found on some late Victorian sites. Jet became particularly popular during Queen Victoria’s period of mourning after the death of Prince Albert. The buttons may have been attached to items of clothing when thrown away.
Small stoneware bottles for ink or dye, commonly found on late Victorian sites.
Greenish/ turquoise ink bottle. These are commonly found in rubbish dumps from the 1910s.
Small beige stoneware ink bottle.
Glass inkwell in brass case, comprising a hinged lid and fitting with incised decoration and a caddy, which sat in a mount. From a writing box or desk.
Ground glass inkwell with pewter fitting for hinged lid (which is missing). Found in dredgings behind an old farm house.
Unidentified desktop object, possibly a stamp dampener (with small bowl for sponge), or the lid of an ornate inkwell. The bottom, or top, is not flat. Cut glass, with copper alloy rim, and dotting decoration on latter. Found in dredgings behind an old farm...
Stemmed glass for sherry or dessert wine. Intact with fine crack.
Free-blown clear glass bird feeder, with decorative top. Trough broken. This would have stood or been suspended in in a birdcage.
Plain white hollow ceramic column for supporting one tier of a wedding cake (along with two or three others).
Pugs were popular in the Victorian era. Small white ceramic pug statuettes were common and often came in pairs. The body would have been standing on four legs, with the head turned to face you.
White ceramic keyhole cover/ draught excluder.
Ceramic and copper alloy door knob from a small cupboard or drawer.
Tiny boss, assumed to be from a piece of tableware.
Clay pipe bowl decorated with holly and the head of Father Christmas.
Shrine statuette of praying figures (Mary and John?) facing, before Christ on the Cross. Cherubs and a cross adorn the canopy. Some orange-yellow over-glaze paint has been applied to the base of the shrine and the cherubs’ wings.
Statuette of praying angel with cross to the rear, symbolising the Annunciation?
Part of the lid from Samuel Clarke’s Patent Pyramid Food Warmer and Night Light. This was a lidded jug with a small metal stand, holding a night light, which heated it from below. It was used in the nursery for boiling milk (to kill bacteria), keeping food warm...
Copper alloy gilt brooch, showing Vishnu reclining on the serpent Ananta. The pin is missing. Victorian London had a small Hindu population.
Hexagonal cobalt poison bottle, with ribbing on two panels and ‘Not to be Taken’ embossed on a third. The shape, design and ribbing all helped to distinguish such bottles from medicine bottles and others that might easily be confused with them.
Army and Navy Co-operative Society, Almond Shaving Cream. Pot lid with red-brown transfer.
The rim of a small plate, transfer-printed in brown with assorted decoration.
Fragments of two moulded green majolica plates, for fruit/ dessert. c. 1860s/70s, decorated with strawberry plants, stippling and basketwork designs.
The head of a statuette, which has survived being burned in a destructor.
These were corked, sealed with sealing wax, and cost a penny each. They contained writing ink.
Plain white ceramic eggcups. Both have slight damage in the form of chips and a hairline crack, but both are still serviceable.
The bowl of a ceramic ladle, with a dark green transfer print showing a bee alighting on a flower.
Clay pipes: an animal (top); an Irish pipe with harp and shamrock on other side (middle), and the maker Parnell (bottom).
Clay pipe made in 1887 to commemorate Buffalo Bill’s performance to the queen on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee. Stem incised [… Q]ueens Buffalo Bill.
Clay pipe bowl moulded as the head of a maharajah or one of the three wise men from Matthew’s Gospel.
Kaolin pipe bowl showing Edward, crowned as Prince of Wales. The other side shows Princess Alexandra. The second bowl (right) bears the symbol of the Crossed Keys. Originally a papal emblem, it attached to many pubs, and this pipe may have been purchased at a pub of...
One ribbed, without spur.
Plain clay pipe bowls, one with maker’s initials on spur.
Kaolin pipe bowls, one with a horse’s hoof for a heel/ spur.
Two-tone salt-glaze stoneware harvest jug, showing a figure like Uncle Toby, with hat and pipe. Other common scenes are hops, hunting figures (dogs, foxes, hares, etc), shooting, game birds, grapes, and pub scenes, with figures sitting with tankards and pipes....
The underside of a Wedgwood plate, showing the diamond registration mark. The numeral IV in the loop at the top signifies the ‘class’ or material, in this instance ‘clay ware’. The letter V in the right corner is for the year 1876, the letter A...
Moulded tile, red majolica. Such tiles were used not only on floors but also on fireplace surrounds, washstands, and to decorate hallways, porches and public houses.
Plate with floral decoration painted over transfer, in red, black and gold.
Clay pipe bowl moulded as the head of a Black African man. Novelty bowls were sometimes sold or given away at pubs whose names they represented. This one may have been smoked at a pub called ‘The Black’s Head’ or similar. (There is still one with...
Part of a statuette of a man in Regency costume. Colouring to hair and face.
Mug with proverb ‘Little strokes fell great oaks’, depicting a man cutting down a tree. The maxim on the other side, with its illustration, has been lost. It ended in ‘[?ho]use’. This is very similar to the ‘Temperance Mug’ (see...
Scrolled foliage pattern within borders, transfer-printed in black on white plate.
Fragment of a jug with floral decoration. Transfer, coloured by hand.
Enamel painting on ceramic oval mount for a book, music box or similar, depicting woman in imagined medieval or European national dress.
Blue transfer on white, showing Napoleon crossing the alps (after painting by Carle Vernet) and scrolls listing his victories, including [Maren]go, Jena, Austerlitz, and M[ontebello]. The pattern called ‘Napoleon’s Victories’, by William Smith &...
Transfer-printed pictorial mug with maxims, including ‘When the drink is in the wit is ou[t]’, and another, which has been lost. Both principles are illustrated in (comic?) scenes above.
Technology for mass-produced polychrome under-glaze transfer-printing was being developed in Fenton c. 1850. After that, multi-coloured transfer images on pot lids, jars, vases, plates and tiles became much more common. These tiles display Arts and Crafts...
Burst lip ribbed ink bottle with recess for pen and smooth section for label.
Two tiny aqua/blue bottles for ‘Marshall’s Giant Cement’. The left one found at Hadleigh. The other, on the foreshore in London.
Majolica umbrella stand, with clay pipe for scale.
Part of a blue glass plate, showing the crown of St Edward. This was made to commemorate the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887.
Half a copper alloy belt clasp from an Irish regiment. Worn as a normal belt buckle at the waist.
Pipe bowl showing the old draped bust of Queen Victoria, which appeared on coins from 1893.
Kaolin pipe bowl showing the old veiled bust of Queen Victoria, which appeared on coins in 1893.
Aqua protective varnish bottle, embossed on two side ‘Hauthaway’s / Peerless Gloss’. Cork top. This American company made protective coatings for footwear.
Made in Holland, smoked in London, dumped in Essex. Dutch clay pipes are distinctive because the bowl sits at about 45 degrees to the stem. This one is in the shape of a tulip – another Dutch import to Victorian London.
Clay pipe in the shape of a bird’s claw clutching an egg.
Clay pipe in the form of a bird’s claw clutching an egg.
Kaolin pipes, smoked in London and dumped in Essex. Top right, the ‘spur’ or ‘heel’ of the pipe is Ally Sloper, a Victorian cartoon character. Centre left: a basketwork design.
Bottle made by Joseph Bourne & Son at the Denby pottery near Derby. Blue was used to whiten laundry.
Brown stoneware, incised ‘Glessen Blue’, with a stamp from Bourne of Denby. This contained blue, which could be mixed with the wash to whiten the linen.
Rubbish from a Victorian pit, including part of a blacking bottle, marked ‘blacking bottle’. This was stamped on bottles in the period 1817-34 to show that they were exempt from the levy on stoneware bottles. The fragmentary glass coffin-shaped bottle in...
Large kettle for brewing up tea on the stove or for hanging over the fire. From labourer’s rubbish found in a privy pit in Griston. The item in front is a mole trap. The item front right is a part of a range.
Green inks of this sort are common on sites dating after c. 1910.
Stoneware ink. These sold for a penny.
Aqua/blue cylindrical ink, with a banner embossed ‘ARNOLD’. Burst lip for cork.
Stoneware ink with rounded shoulders.
Two stoneware ink bottles, showing a slightly larger variant in bluish creamy grey.
Large-size blue glass octagonal ink bottle, with burst lip. Neck slightly askew.
Small ink bottle, found with rubbish from the 1870s.
Small brown stoneware bottle for boot polish or similar.
Tiny aqua bottle embossed ‘Marshall’s Giant Cement’.
Labourers’ shoes. Leather with copper alloy eyelets.
Medium size, dark brown ink, with pouring lip.
Souvenir cup of Canterbury Cathedral. Transfer-printed image on white and pink surround.
Hot water bottle sold by Frederick Finn & Sons Ltd, of Canterbury. Retaining metal ring.
Aqua, burst lip bottle. Use uncertain.
Early stoneware bottle, with rough salt glaze. Use uncertain. Protruding string rim for tying on a cork. Found in the Thames.
Clear glass bottle for ‘Extra Quality Machine Oil’ from the Singer Co., Manufacturers. The top of the neck is broken off. Below it is a child’s slate pencil and a child’s thimble.
Cream-coloured stoneware ink with pouring lip and indecipherable potter’s mark. Two were found in the rector’s privy pit.
Large blacking bottle with typical flared lip, used for stove blacking, boot blacking, and harness liquid.
Large aqua glass bottle for the Stephenson Brothers’ Furniture Cream, Bradford. These began to supersede their stoneware bottles after 1910.
Black glass spill holder, in the form of a classical column with drapery. Restored by author.
Stoneware furniture cream bottles, cork top, used by the Stephenson Brothers and other firms.
Tiny, clear glue or cement bottle, embossed ‘T. O. & Cos/ Mend All/ Reg[istere]d’. Cork top.
Small stoneware bottle, cork top. Found with a Codd bottle and a hand-made Bovril, among other items.
Stoneware, cork top.
Aqua paraffin lamp, embossed ‘The Star Lamp’. Burst lip.
Light blue octagonal ink bottle, with a burst lip. These were sold at a penny each. Cork top.
Left: hexagonal cobalt poison bottle, ribbed on three sides, c. 1895. Hempstead. Right: smaller hexagonal cobalt poison, embossed ‘Not to be Taken’, discarded 1915-20 at Tilbury. Both are hand-made.
Eggcups with gold line decoration to rim and foot. From a set from the rectory at Hempstead.
Two paraffin lamps, damaged around the lips.
Large bottle with ornate panels. Lip missing. Use uncertain.
Sanitary bucket, found at the bottom of the rector’s cesspit. Discarded in 1895.
Chinese blue and white hand-painted ginger jar, with lid. Imported.
Part of the top of a mocha ware pint mug, with blue, white and black bands. These were used in public houses as standard pint mugs.
Crude early stoneware ink bottle, possibly a kiln waster. Part of the lip and neck broke away before the bottle was glazed and fired. It may still have been used, with a cork kept in place by sealing wax. Found on the Thames foreshore.
Part of an incised stoneware blacking bottle, marked with the manufacturer’s name and address and ‘BLACKI[NG BOTTLE]’. Blacking bottles were identified in this manner to avoid the excise duty levied on stoneware bottles in the period 1817-1834, from...
Plain white ceramic jars for meat or fish paste, or possibly for glue.
Left: Green burst-lip bottle. Use uncertain. From London rubbish dumped in Leigh-on-Sea. Right: a machine-made triangular bottle, for coffee extract? Canterbury, 1910s.
Left: hand-made clear glass (Manganese) jar with external screw-thread and ground top, 1890s. Right (for comparison): machine-made aqua jar with external screw-thread, 1910s.
Aqua/blue dye bottle for ‘Judge Brand Co Ltd, Gateshead, Eng[land]’. Tooled lip. Remains of red/pink pigment inside.
Two late stoneware bottles. The one on the left held ink. The other has an external screw thread.
Aqua/blue burst-lip bottle. Use uncertain.
Items from a wash-stand set, including a ewer, soap bowl and vase, decorated in gold and painted colours with birds and foliage. Doulton.
Assorted stoneware bottles mostly for furniture cream and ginger beer, with a couple of galley pots, ink bottles and cream jars, and two bottles for German mineral waters.
Wash-stand jug (called a ewer), with gold decoration. For pouring water into a wash basin.
White chamber pot decorated with thick gold bands.
Small bottle, clear glass, tooled lip. Use uncertain.
Welsh sponge-decorated hand-painted plate.
Advertising tableware, for ‘William Younger & Co’s Pale Ale, on draught’, ‘sold here’. The plinth bore a statuette or a match holder. Originally from a public house.
Pipe stand with slots for books of matches, advertising ‘Salt’s Pale Ale’, property of T. Salt & Co. of Burton-on-Trent. Originally from a public house.
Pipe stand, with slots to hold books of matches. Promotional advertising ware for ‘Salt’s Pale Ale, in bottles, on draught’. On base ‘The Property of T. Salt & Co Ltd, Burton-on-Trent’. Originally from a public house. Minton’s,...
Riley’s Patent Ejector shotgun cartridges.
Part of an umbrella stand. Grey salt-glazed stoneware with cobalt decoration (Rhenish style). Possibly Doulton.
Leather decorative strap from a woman’s boot, showing holes for the laces.
Bases from a set of tureens by Bishop & Stonier Ltd (1891-1936). The word ‘England’ was added in 1899, dating this set no earlier than that.
The central part of an oil lamp (standing upside-down).
Pottery marks on plates, cups, etc, including Doulton, Alfred Meakin and Harrod’s (as retailer). 1890s-1910s.
Porcelain plate with pink enamel in gold borders and hand-painted bird.
Porcelain saucer, with blue floral decoration (similar to tea cup from Bergh Apton) and gold rim.
Blue and white-banded pearlware jug.
Exterior view of tea cup with silver-grey floral decoration.
White tea cup with transfer-printed floral decoration in silver-grey (interior and exterior).
White plate with manganese decoration to the rim (hand-painted).
Plate fragments. Blue Willow Pattern.
Lid from a tureen or pie dish. Willow Pattern in blue.
Chinese ginger jar, hand-painted, imported. Lid missing.
Base of a pot or vase, with runny under-glaze colours.
White cup with floral design transfer-printed in red.
Plain white slops bowl, with lip.
Spongeware, under-glaze decoration in manganese.
Chamber pot. Spongeware, under-glaze decoration in manganese.
Glassware from the School House, including a turquoise cup, a stem and foot from wine or sherry glasses, a jug or mug handle, part of a sugar bowl and a lamp flue.
Clay pipe fragments. A bowl and two pieces of stem.
Links of bone from a purse or handbag chain. From the School House.
Small aqua bottle, square base, rectangular sides. Use uncertain.
Aqua/blue bottle, sheared lip. Use uncertain.
Small clear/ aqua bottle. Use unknown.
Tea cup, plain white with red band to the rim. Handle missing. From the School House.
Four ink bottles in aqua and green glass, with burst-off lips. These cost a penny each and came with corks which were often sealed with sealing wax. From the School House.
Pudding bowls, for steamed puddings. From the School House. These are found in almost every rubbish dump of this period.
Blue Willow Pattern Pie Dish, underside (showing crazing). From the School House.
Blue Willow Pattern Pie Dish, from the School House. Base has crazing, consistent with contact with hot surfaces.
Two small aqua/clear glass bottles, unembossed. Use uncertain.
Mounted inkwell from a writing box. Glass exterior, lined with white pigment or other substance, holding metal inkwell inside. Two metal bands attached to a metal back-plate held it in position.
Decorative fitting for a padded writing box or lady’s bag, with a keyhole. From the School House, Bergh Apton.
Small majolica flower vase, from the School House, Bergh Apton.
Plain white tea cup, ribbed design (base only). From the School House, Bergh Apton.
Assorted crockery from labourers’ rubbish, Kent. Mocha ware to the left, transfer-printed ware to the right (mostly in blue ‘Willow Pattern’). This type of crockery was cheaply manufactured and used universally. There is no hand-painted ware, which...
Bone-handled corkscrew, from labourers’ rubbish. The other object is a ceramic bottle stopper.
Fragments of Mocha ware jugs and bowls. The piece top right is from the base of a mug. The piece with green decoration, bottom right, is from the top of a chamber pot. This type of crockery was cheaply manufactured and widely used throughout the nineteenth century....
Woman’s leather shoe, c. 1910. From rubbish from labourers’ cottages, Kent.
Assorted crockery from the rectory at Hempstead, including pottery and porcelain, some hand-painted, some transfer-printed, from the kitchen, dining room, bathroom and bedroom.
Large size Challis patent “Gourmet Boiler”, for heating up food and milk. Found at Hempstead rectory.
Wine jug, showing grapes, missing a pewter lid. From Hempstead rectory.